• sitemap?nPDTx.xml
  • 中文 |



    2020-09-27 11:18:01


    Dimension lines should be in blue, but may be in red. Where to put them is a great point in draughting. To know where dimensions are required involves a knowledge of fitting and pattern-making, and cannot well be explained; it must be learned in practice. The lines should be fine and clear, leaving a space in their centre for figures when there is room. The distribution of centre lines and dimensions over a drawing must be carefully studied, for the double purpose of giving it a good appearance and to avoid confusion. Figures should be made like printed numerals; they are much better understood by the workman, look more artistic, and when once learned require but little if any more time than written figures. If the scale employed is feet and inches, dimensions to three feet should be in inches, and above this in feet and inches; this corresponds to shop custom, and is more comprehensive to the workman, however wrong it may be according to other standards.

    Forging relates to shaping metal by compression or blows when it is in a heated and softened condition; as a process, it is an intermediate one between casting and what may be called the cold processes. Forging also relates to welding or joining [77] pieces together by sudden heating that melts the surface only, and then by forcing the pieces together while in this softened or semi-fused state. Forging includes, in ordinary practice, the preparation of cutting tools, and tempering them to various degrees of hardness as the nature of the work for which they are intended may require; also the construction of furnaces for heating the material, and mechanical devices for handling it when hot, with the various operations for shaping, which, as in the case of casting, can only be fully understood by experience and observation.I will, in connection with this subject of patterns and castings, suggest a plan of learning especially applicable in such cases, that of adopting a habit of imagining the manner of moulding, and the kind of pattern used in producing each casting that comes under notice. Such a habit becomes easy and natural in a short time, and is a sure means of acquiring an extended knowledge of patterns and moulding.

    It is not proposed at this time to treat of the construction of machinery for transmitting power, but to examine into the conditions that should determine which of the several plans of transmitting is best in certain cases—whether belts, gearing, or shafts should be employed, and to note the principles upon which they operate. Existing examples do not furnish data as to the advantages of the different plans for transmitting power, because a given duty may be successfully performed by belts, gearing, or shafts—even by water, air, or steam—and the comparative advantages of different means of transmission is not always an easy matter to determine.Fourth.—Cores, where used, how vented, how supported in the mould, and I will add how made, because cores that are of an irregular form are often more expensive than external moulds, including the patterns. The expense of patterns is often greatly reduced, but is sometimes increased, by the use of cores, which may be employed to cheapen patterns, add to their durability, or to ensure sound castings.

    Water may be considered as a rigid medium for transmitting power, corresponding to shafts and gear wheels; air as a flexible or yielding one, corresponding to belts. There is at this time but a limited use of pneumatic apparatus for transmitting power, but its application is rapidly extending, especially in transporting material by means of air currents, and in conveying power to mining machinery.

    These four types comprehend the motive-power in general use at the present day. In considering different engines for motive-power in a way to best comprehend their nature, the first view to be taken is that they are all directed to the same end, and all deal with the same power; and in this way avoid, if possible, the impression of there being different kinds of power, as the terms water-power, steam-power, and so on, seem to imply. We speak of steam-power, water-power, or wind-power; but power is the same from whatever source derived, and these distinctions merely indicate different natural sources from which power is derived, or the different means employed to utilise and apply it.

    Aside from the cost or difficulty of obtaining ground sufficient to carry out plans for engineering establishments, the diversity of their arrangement met with, even in those of modern construction, is no doubt owing to a want of reasoning from general premises. There is always a strong tendency to accommodate local conditions, and not unfrequently the details of shop manipulation are quite overlooked, or are not understood by those who arrange buildings.


    Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (ASIPP, HFIPS) undertakes the procurement package of superconducting conductors, correction coil, superconducting feeder, power supply and diagnosis, accounting for nearly 80% of China's ITER procurement package.

    "I am so proud of our team and it’s a great pleasure for me working here," said BAO Liman, an engineer from ASIPP, HFIPS, who was invited to sit near Chinese National flay on the podium at the kick-off ceremony to represent Chinese team. BAO, with some 30 ASIPP engineers, has been working in ITER Tokamak department for more than ten years. Due to the suspended international traveling by COVID-19, most of the Chinese people who are engaged in ITER construction celebrated this important moment at home through live broadcasting.

    One of ASIPP’s undertakes, the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (or PF6 coil) , the heaviest superconducting coil in the world, was completed last year, and arrived at ITER site this June. PF6 timely manufacturing and delivery made a solid foundation for ITER sub-assembly, it will be installed at the bottom of the ITER cryostat.

    Last year, a China-France Consortium in which ASIPP takes a part has won the bid of the first ITER Tokamak Assembly task, TAC-1, a core and important part of the ITER Tokamak assembly.

    Exactly as Bernard BIGOT, Director-General of ITER Organization, commented at a press conference after the ceremony, Chinese team was highly regarded for what they have done to ITER project with excellent completion of procurement package.


    The kick-off ceremony for ITER assembly (Image by Pierre Genevier-Tarel-ITER Organization) 


    the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS) 


    ITER-TAC1 Contract Signing Ceremony (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)

    World dignitaries celebrate a collaborative achievement

    Related Articles
    Contact Us
    • 86-1077-685977521 (day)

      86-1077-6877597289 (night)

    • 86-1077-6851107795 (day)

      86-1077-6851277458 (night)

    • cas_en@cas.cn

    • 52 Sanlihe Rd., Beijing,

      China (100864)

    Copyright © 2002 - Chinese Academy of Sciences