Keeping these various points in mind, an apprentice will derive both pleasure and advantage from tracing their application in steam-hammers, which may come under notice, and various modifications of the mechanism will only render investigation more interesting.
A planing machine with a running platen occupies nearly twice as much floor space, and requires a frame at least one-third longer than if the platen were fixed and the tools performed the cutting movement. The weight which has to be traversed, including the carriage, will in nearly all cases exceed what it would be with a tool movement; so that there must exist some very strong reasons in favour of a moving platen, which I will now attempt to explain, or at least point out some of the more prominent causes which have led to the common arrangement of planing machines.
The gearing of these machines is alluded to here mainly for the purpose of calling attention to what constitutes a new and singular mechanical movement, one that will furnish a most interesting study, and deserves a more extended application in producing slow reciprocating motion.
London, 1875.On the other hand, the amount that an apprentice may earn by his labour is governed by his natural capacity, and by the interest he may feel in advancing; also from the view he may take of the equity of his engagement, and the estimate that he places upon the privileges and instruction that he receives. In many branches of business, where the nature of the operations carried on are measurably uniform, and have not for a long time been much affected by changes and improvements, the conditions of apprenticeship are more easy to define; but mechanical engineering is the reverse of this, it lacks uniformity both as to practice and what is produced. To estimate the actual value of apprentice labour in an engineering-work is not only a very difficult matter, but to some extent impracticable even by those of long experience and skilled in such investigations; and it is not to be expected that a beginner will under such circumstances be able to understand the value of such labour: he is generally led to the conclusion that he is unfairly treated, that his services are not sufficiently paid for, and that he is not advanced rapidly enough.
5. This rebounding action becomes less as the columns of water projected upon the wheel are increased in number and diminished in size.
2007彩票资料大全:Lastly, proportions; having estimated the cutting force required at one ton, although less than the actual strain in a machine of this kind, we proceed upon this to fix proportions,  beginning with the tool shank, and following back through the adjusting saddle, the cutting bar, connections, crank pins, shafts, and gear wheels to the belt. Starting again at the tool, or point of cutting, following through the supports of the rack, the jaws that clamp it, the saddle for the graduating adjustment, the connections with the main frame, and so on to the crank-shaft bearing a second time, dimensions may be fixed for each piece to withstand the strains without deflection or danger of breaking. Such proportions cannot, I am aware, be brought within the rules of ordinary practice by relying upon calculation alone to fix them, and no such course is suggested; calculation may aid, but cannot determine proportions in such cases; besides, symmetry, which cannot be altogether disregarded, modifies the form and sometimes the dimensions of various parts.
It would be inferred that the arrangement of these double acting hammers must necessarily be complicated and expensive, but the contrary is the fact. The rams are simply two masses of iron mounted on wheels that run on ways, like a truck, and the impact of the hammers, so far as not absorbed in the work, is  neutralised by each other. No shock or jar is communicated to framing or foundations as in the case of single acting hammers that have fixed anvils. The same rule applies in the back stroke of the hammers as the links which move them are connected together at the centre, where the power is applied at right angles to the line of the hammer movement. The links connecting the two hammers constitute, in effect, a toggle joint, the steam piston being attached where they meet in the centre.
When the dimensions and symbols are added to a drawing, the next thing is pattern or catalogue numbers. These should be marked in prominent, plain figures on each piece of casting, either in red or other colour that will contrast with the general face of the drawing. These numbers, to avoid the use of symbols in connection with them, must include consecutively all patterns employed in the business, and can extend to thousands without inconvenience.
It may be noticed that the carriages of some lathes move on what are termed V tracks which project above the top of lathe frames, and that in other lathes the carriages slide on top of the frames with a flat bearing. As these two plans of mounting lathe carriages have led to considerable discussion on the part of engineers, and as its consideration may suggest a plan of analysing other problems of a similar nature, I will notice some of the conditions existing in the two cases, calling the different arrangements by the names of flat shears and track shears.。
Milling tools large enough to admit of detachable cutters being employed, are not so expensive to maintain as solid tools. Edge movement can sometimes be multiplied in this way, so as to greatly exceed what a single tool will perform.。
I will, in connection with this subject of patterns and castings, suggest a plan of learning especially applicable in such cases, that of adopting a habit of imagining the manner of moulding, and the kind of pattern used in producing each casting that comes under notice. Such a habit becomes easy and natural in a short time, and is a sure means of acquiring an extended knowledge of patterns and moulding.。