The analogy between steam-power and water-power is therefore quite complete. Water is in both cases the medium through which power is obtained; evaporation is also the leading principle in both, the main difference being that in the case of steam-power the force employed is directly from the expansion of water by heat, and in water-power the force is an indirect result of expansion of water by heat.
These are, however, not the only reasons which have led to a running platen for planing machines, although they are the most important.
In adding another to the large number of books which treat upon Mechanics, and especially of that class devoted to what is called Mechanical Engineering, it will be proper to explain some of the reasons for preparing the present work; and as these explanations will constitute a part of the work itself, and be directed to a subject of some interest to a learner, they are included in the Introduction.The third plan of boring with bars resting in bearings is more extensively practised, and has the largest range of adaptation. A feature of this plan of boring is that the form of the boring-bar, or any imperfection in its bearings, is communicated to the work; a want of straightness in the bar makes tapering holes. This, of course, applies to cases where a bar is fed through fixed bearings placed at one or both ends of a hole to be bored. If a boring-bar is bent, or out of truth between its bearings, the diameter of the hole being governed by the extreme sweep of the cutters is untrue to the same extent, because as the cutters move along and come nearer to the bearings, the bar runs with more truth, forming a tapering hole diminishing toward the rests or bearings. The same rule applies to some extent in chuck-boring, the form of the lathe spindle being communicated to holes bored; but lathe spindles are presumed to be quite perfect compared with boring bars.
It is generally useless and injudicious to either expect or to search after radical changes or sweeping improvements in machine manufacture or machine application, but it is important in learning how to construct and apply machinery, that the means of foreseeing what is to come in future should at the same time be considered. The attention of a learner can, for example, be directed to the division of labour, improvements in shop system, how and where commercial interests are influenced by machinery, what countries are likely to develop manufactures, the influence of steam-hammers on forging, the more extended use of steel when cheapened by improved processes for producing it, the division of mechanical industry into special branches, what kind of machinery may become staple, such as shafts, pulleys, wheels, and so on. These things are mentioned at random, to indicate what is meant by looking into the future as well as at the present.
Fourth.—Cores, where used, how vented, how supported in the mould, and I will add how made, because cores that are of an irregular form are often more expensive than external moulds, including the patterns. The expense of patterns is often greatly reduced, but is sometimes increased, by the use of cores, which may be employed to cheapen patterns, add to their durability, or to ensure sound castings.
A cubic inch of water, by taking up a given amount of heat, is expanded to more than five hundred cubic inches of steam, at a pressure of forty-five pounds to the square inch. This extraordinary expansion, if performed in a close vessel, would exert a power five hundred times as great as would be required to force the same quantity of water into the vessel against this expansive pressure; in other words, the volume of the water when put into the vessel would be but one five-hundredth part of its volume when it is allowed to escape, and this expansion, when confined in a steam-boiler, exerts the force that is called steam-power. This force or power is, through the means of the engine and its details, communicated and applied to different kinds of work where force and movement are required. The water  employed to generate steam, like the engine and the boiler, is merely an agent through which the energy of heat is applied.Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (ASIPP, HFIPS) undertakes the procurement package of superconducting conductors, correction coil, superconducting feeder, power supply and diagnosis, accounting for nearly 80% of China's ITER procurement package.
"I am so proud of our team and it’s a great pleasure for me working here," said BAO Liman, an engineer from ASIPP, HFIPS, who was invited to sit near Chinese National flay on the podium at the kick-off ceremony to represent Chinese team. BAO, with some 30 ASIPP engineers, has been working in ITER Tokamak department for more than ten years. Due to the suspended international traveling by COVID-19, most of the Chinese people who are engaged in ITER construction celebrated this important moment at home through live broadcasting.
One of ASIPP’s undertakes, the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (or PF6 coil) , the heaviest superconducting coil in the world, was completed last year, and arrived at ITER site this June. PF6 timely manufacturing and delivery made a solid foundation for ITER sub-assembly, it will be installed at the bottom of the ITER cryostat.
Last year, a China-France Consortium in which ASIPP takes a part has won the bid of the first ITER Tokamak Assembly task, TAC-1, a core and important part of the ITER Tokamak assembly.
Exactly as Bernard BIGOT, Director-General of ITER Organization, commented at a press conference after the ceremony, Chinese team was highly regarded for what they have done to ITER project with excellent completion of procurement package.
The kick-off ceremony for ITER assembly (Image by Pierre Genevier-Tarel-ITER Organization)
the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
ITER-TAC1 Contract Signing Ceremony (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
52 Sanlihe Rd., Beijing,
Copyright © 2002 - Chinese Academy of Sciences